The adaptive immune system, along with the innate immune system, are the two main biological processes that protect an organism from pathogens. The adaptive immune system is characterized by the specificity and extreme diversity of its antigen receptors. These antigen receptors are the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies of the B cells and the T cell receptors (TR) of the T cells. The IG are proteins that have a dual role in immunity: they recognize antigens and trigger elimination mechanisms, to rid the body of foreign cells. The synthesis of the immunoglobulin heavy and light chains requires gene rearrangements at the DNA level in the IGH, IGK, and IGL loci. The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is one of the most widely used nonhuman primate species in biomedical research. In this manuscript, we provide a thorough analysis of the three IG loci of the Mmul_10 assembly of rhesus monkey, integrating IMGT previously existing data. Detailed characterization of IG genes includes their localization and position in the loci, the determination of the allele functionality, and the description of the regulatory elements of their promoters as well as the sequences of the conventional recombination signals (RS). This complete annotation of the genomic IG loci of Mmul_10 assembly and the highly detailed IG gene characterization could be used as a model, in additional rhesus monkey assemblies, for the analysis of the IG allelic polymorphism and structural variation, which have been described in rhesus monkeys.
Keywords: IGH locus; IGK locus; IGL locus; IMGT; Macaca mulatta; immunogenetics; immunoglobulins; immunoinformatics.