Simplified and Low-Cost Characterization of Medium-Voltage Low-Power Voltage Transformers in the Power Quality Frequency Range

Sensors (Basel). 2022 Mar 15;22(6):2274. doi: 10.3390/s22062274.


The distribution network is experiencing a massive deployment of intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) such as energy meters, protective devices, and phasor measurement units (PMUs). This phenomenon resulted, on the one hand, in (i) the availability of distributed measurement systems capable of monitoring and collecting measurements from the distribution network, and (ii) increasing awareness of the system operator about the status of the network. On the other hand, such a significant number of devices require to be characterized, over the years, and assessed in both sinusoidal and distorted conditions. However, the characterization process may require a huge investment of money and time considering the low availability of reference instruments and accredited laboratories. To this purpose, this paper presents a simple and fast test procedure, performed with cheap and low-voltage instrumentation, to characterize two off-the-shelf low-power medium-voltage sensors in the power quality frequency range. In detail, the paper describes the measurement setup developed for the characterization and the performed tests. In addition, the method was also reproduced with reference equipment for validation purposes. Lastly, for both tests, an uncertainty evaluation was performed to quantify the goodness of the proposed method. From the results, it is possible to appreciate that the designed cheap and simple test can achieve as accurate results as those of a sophisticated and expensive equipment.

Keywords: accuracy; characterization; distribution network; low-cost procedure; low-power voltage transformers; medium voltage; power quality; uncertainty.

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