Coordination of Chloroplast Activity with Plant Growth: Clues Point to TOR

Plants (Basel). 2022 Mar 17;11(6):803. doi: 10.3390/plants11060803.


Photosynthesis is the defining function of most autotrophic organisms. In the plantae kingdom, chloroplasts host this function and ensure growth. However, these organelles are very sensitive to stressful conditions and the photosynthetic process can cause photooxidative damage if not perfectly regulated. In addition, their function is energivorous in terms of both chemical energy and nutrients. To coordinate chloroplast activity with the cell's need, continuous signaling is required: from chloroplasts to cytoplasm and from nucleus to chloroplasts. In this opinion article, several mechanisms that ensure this communication are reported and the many clues that point to an important role of the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase in the coordination between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic sides of plants are highlighted.

Keywords: TOR; chloroplast; photooxidation; plant growth; stress response.