Two Japanese patients with Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2

Am J Med Genet A. 2022 Jul;188(7):2246-2250. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62733. Epub 2022 Mar 25.


Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair (NSLH) is a rare disease characterized by typical features of Noonan syndrome with additional findings of relative or absolute macrocephaly, loose anagen hair, and a higher incidence of intellectual disability. NSLH1 is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the SHOC2 gene on chromosome 10q25, and NLSH2 is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the Protein phosphatase one catalytic subunit beta (PPP1CB) gene on chromosome 2p23. Protein phosphatase1 (PP1), encoded by PPP1CB, forms a complex with SHOC2 and dephosphorylates RAFs, which results in activation of the signaling cascade and contribution to Noonan syndrome pathogenesis. Here, we report two genetically confirmed Japanese patients with NSLH2 having the same de novo mutation in PPP1CB presenting prominent-hyperteloric-appearing eyes and a tall forehead similar to individuals carrying a mutation in PPP1CB, c.146C > G; p.Pro49Arg, which is different from typical facial features of Noonan syndrome. They also showed short stature, absolute macrocephaly, and loose anagen hair like NSLH1: however, growth hormone deficiency often seen in NSLH1 caused by SHOC2 mutation was absent. Although a number of Noonan syndrome and NSLH1 patients have shown blunted or no response to GH therapy, linear growth was promoted by recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in one of our patients. Since another NSLH2 patient with good response to rhGH treatment was reported, rhGH therapy may be effective in patients with NSLH2.

Keywords: Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2; PPP1CB; recombinant human growth hormone therapy; short stature without growth hormone deficiency.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple* / pathology
  • Hair / pathology
  • Human Growth Hormone* / genetics
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • Japan
  • Loose Anagen Hair Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Loose Anagen Hair Syndrome* / genetics
  • Loose Anagen Hair Syndrome* / pathology
  • Megalencephaly* / pathology
  • Mutation
  • Noonan Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Noonan Syndrome* / genetics
  • Noonan Syndrome* / pathology


  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • SHOC2 protein, human
  • Human Growth Hormone