Enhancing Quality Measurement With Clinical Information: A Use Case of Body Mass Index Change Among Children Taking Second Generation Antipsychotics

Acad Pediatr. 2022 Apr;22(3S):S140-S149. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.11.012.


Objective: We sought to examine the extent to which body mass index (BMI) was available in electronic health records for Florida Medicaid recipients aged 5 to 18 years taking Second-Generation Antipsychotics (SGAP). We also sought to illustrate how clinical data can be used to identify children most at-risk for SGAP-induced weight gain, which cannot be done using process-focused measures.

Methods: Electronic health record (EHR) data and Medicaid claims were linked from 2013 to 2019. We quantified sociodemographic differences between children with and without pre- and post-BMI values. We developed a linear regression model of post-BMI to examine pre-post changes in BMI among 4 groups: 1) BH/SGAP+ children had behavioral health conditions and were taking SGAP; 2) BH/SGAP- children had behavioral health conditions without taking SGAP; 3) children with asthma; and 4) healthy children.

Results: Of 363,360 EHR-Medicaid linked children, 18,726 were BH/SGAP+. Roughly 4% of linked children and 8% of BH/SGAP+ children had both pre and post values of BMI required to assess quality of SGAP monitoring. The percentage varied with gender and race-ethnicity. The R2 for the regression model with all predictors was 0.865. Pre-post change in BMI differed significantly (P < .0001) among the groups, with more BMI gain among those taking SGAP, particularly those with higher baseline BMI.

Conclusion: Meeting the 2030 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services goal of digital monitoring of quality of care will require continuing expansion of clinical encounter data capture to provide the data needed for digital quality monitoring. Using linked EHR and claims data allows identifying children at higher risk for SGAP-induced weight gain.

Keywords: digital quality measures; metabolic monitoring; quality measurement; race-ethnicity; rurality.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Aged
  • Antipsychotic Agents* / adverse effects
  • Body Mass Index
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Humans
  • Medicaid
  • Medicare
  • United States
  • Weight Gain


  • Antipsychotic Agents