Contextual Factors Affecting Implementation of Pediatric Quality Improvement Programs

Acad Pediatr. 2022 Apr;22(3S):S81-S91. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.08.016.


Objective: Context is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of quality improvement programs. We assessed the role of contextual factors in influencing the efforts of 5 diverse quality improvement projects as part of the Pediatric Quality Measure Program (PQMP) directed by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality.

Methods: We conducted a mixed methods study of 5 PQMP grantees involving semistructured interviews followed by structured worksheets to identify influential contextual factors. Semistructured interviews and worksheets were completed between August and October 2020. Participants were comprised of PQMP grantee teams (2-4 team members per team for a total of 15 participants). Coding and analysis was based on the Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases (TICD) framework.

Results: Despite heterogeneity in the process and outcome targets of the PQMP initiatives, professional interactions, incentives and resources, and capacity for organizational change were the domains most commonly identified as influential across the grantees. While social, political, and legal factors was not commonly referenced as an important domain, payer or funder policies (a factor within this domain) was highlighted as one of the most influential factors. Overall, the incentives and resources domain was identified as the most influential.

Conclusions: We found that using a determinant framework, such as the TICD, is valuable in facilitating comparisons across heterogeneous projects, allowing us to identify key contextual factors influencing the implementation of pediatric quality measures across a diverse range of clinical topics and settings. Future quality improvement work should account for this and include resources to support infrastructure development in addition to program implementation.

Keywords: contextual factors; implementation science; pediatric quality measures.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Humans
  • Organizational Innovation
  • Quality Improvement*