Enzymes of vitamin B6 degradation. Purification and properties of isopyridoxal dehydrogenase and 5-formyl-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine-4-carboxylic-acid dehydrogenase

J Biol Chem. 1986 Nov 15;261(32):15106-11.


Two NAD+-dependent, highly specific pyridine-5-aldehyde dehydrogenases, 5-formyl-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine-4-carboxylic-acid (Compound 1) dehydrogenase and isopyridoxal dehydrogenase, were purified to homogeneity from Pseudomonas MA-1 and Arthrobacter Cr-7, respectively. Both enzymes are induced in response to growth of the organisms on pyridoxine and catalyze steps in the degradation of this compound by these organisms. Compound 1 dehydrogenase (Mr = 65,000) contains two subunits of equal size with methionine as the NH2-terminal amino acid and acts optimally at pH 7.8-8.5. It catalyzes with equal facility (turnover number = 400-670 s-1 molecule-1) both the oxidation of Compound 1 (Km = 65 microM) by NAD+ (Km = 25 microM) to 3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine-4,5-dicarboxylic acid and the reduction of Compound 1 by NADH (Km = 20 microM) to 4-pyridoxic acid and appears to act as a true dismutase. The possible advantage to the organism of its ability to act as a dismutase is discussed briefly. No oxidation of 4-pyridoxic acid by this enzyme was observed. Isopyridoxal dehydrogenase (Mr = 242,000) contains four subunits of equal size, again with methionine at the NH2 terminus. At its optimal pH of 8.0-8.6, it catalyzes the oxidation of isopyridoxal (Km = 40 microM, turnover number = 10 s-1 molecule-1) by NAD+ (Km = 40 microM) to a mixture of 5-pyridoxic acid and 5-pyridoxolactone, which are produced in constant ratio throughout the course of the reaction. Formation of the two products, although unusual, is readily understandable in terms of the structure of isopyridoxal in solution or the structure of a possible acyl-enzyme intermediate in the oxidative reaction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases / isolation & purification*
  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Arthrobacter / enzymology*
  • Kinetics
  • Macromolecular Substances
  • Molecular Weight
  • Pseudomonas / enzymology*
  • Pyridoxine / metabolism*
  • Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet


  • Macromolecular Substances
  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases
  • 5-formyl-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine-4-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase
  • isopyridoxal dehydrogenase
  • Pyridoxine