Extracellular Regucalcin Suppresses the Growth, Migration, Invasion, and Adhesion of Metastatic Human Prostate Cancer Cells

Oncology. 2022;100(7):399-412. doi: 10.1159/000524303. Epub 2022 Mar 25.


Introduction: Regucalcin plays a multifunctional role in the regulation of cellular function including metabolism, signaling process, and transcriptional activity in maintaining cell homeostasis. Downregulated expression or activity of regucalcin contributes to the development of malignancies in various types of human cancer. Survival of cancer patients, including metastatic prostate cancer, is prolonged with high expression of regucalcin in the tumor tissues.

Methods: We elucidate whether extracellular regucalcin conquers the growth, migration, invasion, and adhesion of metastatic human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU-145 cells.

Results: Extracellular regucalcin (0.1, 1, and 10 nM) of physiologic levels (1 nM at human serum) inhibited colony formation and growth of PC-3 and DU-145 cells, while it did not have an effect on cell death. Repressive effects of extracellular regucalcin on the proliferation were not exhibited by the presence of inhibitors of the cell cycle, intracellular signaling process, and transcriptional activity, suggesting that the signals of extracellular regucalcin are transmitted to block cell growth. Furthermore, extracellular regucalcin (0.1, 1, or 10 nM) inhibited migration, invasion, and adhesion of PC-3 and DU-145 cells. Mechanistically, extracellular regucalcin (10 nM) decreased the levels of various signaling proteins including Ras, posphatidylinositol-3 kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, mechanistic target of rapamycin, RSK-2, caveolin-1, and integrin β1 in PC-3 cells.

Discussion and conclusion: Thus, extracellular regucalcin may play a suppressive role in growth, migration, invasion, and adhesion, which are involved in the metastatic activity of human prostate cancer cells, via affecting diverse signaling processes. This study may provide a new strategy in preventing metastatic prostate cancer with exogenous regucalcin.

Keywords: Adhesion; Cell death; Cell proliferation; Colony formation; DU-145 cells; Invasion; Migration; PC-3 cell; Prostate cancer cell; Regucalcin.

MeSH terms

  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / pharmacology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins*
  • Male
  • Prostatic Neoplasms*


  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins