Adoption, use and enhancement of virtual learning during COVID-19

Educ Inf Technol (Dordr). 2022;27(7):8939-8959. doi: 10.1007/s10639-022-10985-x. Epub 2022 Mar 21.


This study focuses on the uses of digital technology during teaching and learning. The preparedness, adoption, and use of virtual learning are inquired. Technology cannot enhance learning unless adopted, embraced, and effectively used. Three hundred and one (301) online questionnaires were administered to Higher and Tertiary institutions (HTEIs) students. The data were analyzed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). Performance Expectancy (PE), Effort Expectancy (EE), and Social Influence (SI) were confirmed to be positive predictors of the Behavioural Intention (BI) to use technology. Facilitating Conditions (FC) is a non-significant construct to BI to use technology. Thus, irrespective of the availability of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure and support needed to use virtual learning, students are forced to use virtual technology due to COVID-19. Pandemics such as COVID-19 force students and lecturers to use virtual learning irrespective of factors surrounding them. Pandemics are an anchor for the full embracement of virtual learning. Pandemic 'like' elements applied in the education system foster education. Google Classroom and its features prove to improve the teaching and learning processes. Chatbots and contextualized virtual Educational Humanoid robots enhance learning through interactivity. Pandemics need to be tested if they are a perfect fit as a new Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model construct. In addition, a model for effective blended learning during and post COVID-19 must be developed.

Keywords: COVID-19; Higher education; Improving virtual learning; Pandemics; UTAUT.