Femininity in men and masculinity in women: American psychiatry and psychology portray homosexuality in the 1930's

J Homosex. 1986 Fall;13(1):1-21. doi: 10.1300/J082v13n01_01.


Two influential studies of homosexuality are reviewed. Both were conducted in the United States in the 1930s and involved rather large samples of homosexual men and women. Each investigation concluded that homosexuality was linked to cross-gender identification. Consequently, these studies served as a justification for perpetuating a clear distinction between masculine and feminine roles. Consideration is given to the intellectual and social context within which the association of gender deviation and homosexuality was promulgated.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Gender Identity*
  • History, 20th Century
  • Homosexuality* / history
  • Humans
  • Identification, Psychological*
  • Male
  • Psychiatry / history
  • Psychology / history
  • United States