The presence of antibodies against P. falciparum sporozoites in humans living in malaria-endemic areas was measured using as antigen the synthetic peptide (NANP)3, which represents the immunodominant region of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein. By using a competitive binding assay it was determined that antibodies which recognize (NANP)3 do not react with a 22-Mer synthetic peptide representing a cross-reacting epitope present in an antigen (5.1) from the blood stages of the parasite. Antibodies present in human sera which react with the 5.1 peptide did not react with (NANP)3. This strongly suggests that antibodies to (NANP)3 found in sera of individuals living in endemic areas are a reflection of exposure to P. falciparum sporozoites. These results validate the use of (NANP)3 for epidemiological studies to detect and measure humoral immunity to P. falciparum sporozoites.