Congenital hand differences: Prevalence among school going children in Mangalore city

J Orthop. 2022 Mar 19:31:17-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jor.2022.03.005. eCollection 2022 May-Jun.


Introduction: Congenital upper extremity anomalies are present in 1 in every 626 live births. They are mostly isolated phenomena but can also be associated with other congenital deformities and may be the only external feature of a syndromic entity. A study on it in India, especially the southern part, is limited. As the quality of life gets compromised, there is a need to identify and diagnose the anomalies at the earliest. Current study is aimed to identify congenital hand deformities among the school-going population in the coastal city of Mangalore.A cross sectional study was done in the schools in Mangalore city. By simple random sampling, 35 out of 70 schools were selected, and 10,000 children in age group of 5-15years were included by non-probability sampling after taking their consent from school authorities and parents. Data was analyzed by FISHER's exact test.

Result: 41 cases of congenital hand anomalies were identified with 23 boys and 18 girls. Twelve children had bilateral involvement. 28 cases where of polydactyly followed by four cases of acrosyndactyly with constriction band, three cases each of syndactyly and camptodactyly,one case of lobster hand and one case each of transverse deficiency of hand and forearm. Associated lower limb anomalies were seen in 9 cases. Familial associations were seen in 6 cases, and 1 polydactyly child had a downs syndrome association. All cases[4cases] of acrosyndactyly with constriction band syndrome were operated at childhood, and most other deformities were unoperated. Polydactyly[duplication] tops the list and needs further studies to look into genetic, environmental, and regional variations.

Conclusion: The prevalence of congenital hand difference in Mangalore is 41 per 10000 school-going children examined. . A future national registry in India should be the way forward to assess the true prevalence and risk factors.

Keywords: Congenital hand; Mangalore; Prevalence.