Economic and health impacts of Helicobacter pylori eradication strategy for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease: A cost-effectiveness analysis

Helicobacter. 2022 Jun;27(3):e12886. doi: 10.1111/hel.12886. Epub 2022 Mar 27.


Background: Most peptic ulcer cases are associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection or the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). H. pylori eradication therapy is recommended for the treatment of H. pylori-positive peptic ulcers. We aimed to assess and validate the cumulative economic and health effects of H. pylori eradication strategy for the treatment of peptic ulcers compared with PPI therapy strategy.

Materials and methods: We developed a cohort state-transition model for H. pylori eradication strategy and PPI therapy strategy over a lifetime horizon from a healthcare payer perspective. We targeted two hypothetical cohorts of H. pylori-positive patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers aged 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80. The main outcomes were costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life expectancy life-years (LYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, ulcer recurrence cases, and ulcer-associated deaths. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the impact of uncertainty.

Results: In the base-case analysis, H. pylori eradication strategy was less costly with greater benefits than PPI therapy strategy in all age groups. Cost-effectiveness was not sensitive to any variables in all age groups. Sensitivity analyses showed strong robustness of the results. From 2000 to 2020, H. pylori eradication strategy saved US$14.07 billion over a lifetime, increased 8.65 million QALYs and 1.23 million LYs over a lifetime, and prevented 551,298 ulcer recurrence cases and 59,465 ulcer-associated deaths, compared with PPI therapy strategy.

Conclusions: H. pylori eradication strategy not only has contributed significantly to preventing ulcer recurrence and reducing ulcer-associated deaths but also has resulted in great cost savings. All over the world, H. pylori eradication strategy is likely to have yielded a comparable magnitude of economic and health benefits, depending on the epidemiology of H. pylori-related peptic ulcers and the healthcare environment in each country.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; economics; eradication; peptic ulcer disease; prevention; proton pump inhibitor.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Ulcer Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Helicobacter Infections* / complications
  • Helicobacter pylori*
  • Humans
  • Peptic Ulcer* / drug therapy
  • Peptic Ulcer* / prevention & control
  • Ulcer / drug therapy


  • Anti-Ulcer Agents