IP3R1/GRP75/VDAC1 complex mediates endoplasmic reticulum stress-mitochondrial oxidative stress in diabetic atrial remodeling

Redox Biol. 2022 Jun:52:102289. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2022.102289. Epub 2022 Mar 21.


Rationale: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are important mechanisms of atrial remodeling, predisposing to the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes especially their interactions have not been fully elucidated.

Objective: To explore the potential role of ER stress-mitochondrial oxidative stress in atrial remodeling and AF induction in diabetes.

Methods and results: Mouse atrial cardiomyocytes (HL-1 cells) and rats with T2DM were used as study models. Significant ER stress was observed in the diabetic rat atria. After treatment with tunicamycin (TM), an ER stress agonist, mass spectrometry (MS) identified several known ER stress and calmodulin proteins, including heat shock protein family A (HSP70) member [HSPA] 5 [GRP78]) and HSPA9 (GRP75, glucose-regulated protein 75). In situ proximity ligation assay indicated that TM led to increased protein expression of the IP3R1-GRP75-VDAC1 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1-glucose-regulated protein 75-voltage-dependent anion channel 1) complex in HL-1 cells. Small interfering RNA silencing of GRP75 in HL-1 cells and GRP75 conditional knockout in a mouse model led to impaired calcium transport from the ER to the mitochondria and alleviated mitochondrial oxidative stress and calcium overload. Moreover, GRP75 deficiency attenuated atrial remodeling and AF progression in Myh6-Cre+/Hspa9flox/flox + TM mice.

Conclusions: The IP3R1-GRP75-VDAC1 complex mediates ER stress-mitochondrial oxidative stress and plays an important role in diabetic atrial remodeling.

Keywords: Atrial fibrillation; Diabetes; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; IP3R1–GRP75–VDAC1 complex; Mitochondria.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Atrial Remodeling*
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / genetics
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / metabolism
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors / genetics
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Mice
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Rats
  • Tunicamycin
  • Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 / metabolism


  • HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Vdac1 protein, rat
  • glucose-regulated proteins
  • Tunicamycin
  • Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1
  • Glucose
  • Calcium