Augmentation cystoplasty in dogs: A comparative study of different tunica vaginalis grafts

Vet Anim Sci. 2022 Mar 18;16:100247. doi: 10.1016/j.vas.2022.100247. eCollection 2022 Jun.

Abstract

In veterinary practice, numerous urological disorders that cause bladder dysfunction necessitate augmentation cystoplasty (AC). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dog tunica vaginalis allograft (DTVA), sheep tunica vaginalis xenograft (STVX) and sheep tunica vaginalis decellularized extracellular matrix (STVDEM) as graft materials for urinary bladder (UB) reconstruction following a 45±5% cystectomy model in dogs. In this study, 18 adult apparently healthy mongrel dogs of both sexes were divided into three groups (6 dogs each): the DTVA group, the STVX group, and the STVDEM group. The evaluation of the AC in different groups was carried out using clinical, hematological, serum biochemical, urine, ultrasonographic, retrograde positive cystogram, and histopathological analysis all over the study period of 12 weeks. The dogs in all groups survived the procedures, except three dogs died from both STVX and DTVA groups. The mean bladder capacity indicated that the DTVA and STVX groups had regained 82.22% and 68.62%, respectively, of their preoperative baseline capacity. Interestingly, the STVDEM group's bladder capacity increased to 113.70%. Although histological analysis revealed that the three grafts successfully rebuilt the bladder wall, the STVDEM demonstrated well-organized and well-differentiated epithelial and muscular tissues that resembled, but were not identical to, native UB tissues. As a result, STVDEM is proposed as an ideal and potential acellular graft for UB reconstruction in dogs, whereas DTVA and STVX could be employed in emergencies requiring UB reconstruction.

Keywords: Augmentation cystoplasty; Decellularized extracellular matrix; Dogs; Tunica vaginalis; Urinary bladder.