Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Infants With Cardiac Surgery Associated Acute Kidney Injury

Ann Thorac Surg. 2022 Dec;114(6):2347-2354. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2022.03.020. Epub 2022 Mar 25.


Background: Infants who undergo surgery for congenital heart disease are at risk of neurodevelopmental delay. Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CS-AKI) is common but its association with neurodevelopment has not been explored.

Methods: This was a single-center retrospective observational study of infants who underwent cardiac surgery in the first year of life who had neurodevelopmental testing using the Bayley Scale for Infant Development, third edition. Single and recurrent episodes of stages 2 and 3 CS-AKI were determined.

Results: Of 203 children with median age at first surgery of 12 days, 31% had one or more episodes of severe CS-AKI; of those, 16% had recurrent CS-AKI. Median age at neurodevelopmental assessment was 20 months. The incidence of delay was similar for patients with and patients without CS-AKI but all children with recurrent CS-AKI had a delay in one or more domains and had significantly lower scores in all three domains, namely, cognitive, language, and motor.

Conclusions: This study has assessed the association of CS-AKI with neurodevelopmental delay after surgery for congenital heart disease in infancy. Infants who have recurrent CS-AKI in the first year of life are more likely to be delayed and have lower neurodevelopmental scores.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury* / epidemiology
  • Acute Kidney Injury* / etiology
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures* / adverse effects
  • Child
  • Child Development
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / complications
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors