Altered Retinal Dopamine Levels in a Melatonin-proficient Mouse Model of Form-deprivation Myopia

Neurosci Bull. 2022 Sep;38(9):992-1006. doi: 10.1007/s12264-022-00842-9. Epub 2022 Mar 27.


Reduced levels of retinal dopamine, a key regulator of eye development, are associated with experimental myopia in various species, but are not seen in the myopic eyes of C57BL/6 mice, which are deficient in melatonin, a neurohormone having extensive interactions with dopamine. Here, we examined the relationship between form-deprivation myopia (FDM) and retinal dopamine levels in melatonin-proficient CBA/CaJ mice. We found that these mice exhibited a myopic refractive shift in form-deprived eyes, which was accompanied by altered retinal dopamine levels. When melatonin receptors were pharmacologically blocked, FDM could still be induced, but its magnitude was reduced, and retinal dopamine levels were no longer altered in FDM animals, indicating that melatonin-related changes in retinal dopamine levels contribute to FDM. Thus, FDM is mediated by both dopamine level-independent and melatonin-related dopamine level-dependent mechanisms in CBA/CaJ mice. The previously reported unaltered retinal dopamine levels in myopic C57BL/6 mice may be attributed to melatonin deficiency.

Keywords: Dopamine; Melatonin; Mouse; Myopia; Refractive development; Retina.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dopamine
  • Melatonin*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Inbred CBA
  • Myopia*
  • Retina
  • Sensory Deprivation


  • Melatonin
  • Dopamine