Dysentery lasting 4-8 days was produced in five 4-day-old colostrum-fed calves, after inoculation with an atypical strain of Escherichia coli S102-9; peak excretion of S102-9 occurred during the period of dysentery. Two calves were killed when clinical signs were most severe and bacteria were seen attached to the surfaces of enterocytes in the large intestine; microscopic lesions were seen in these areas. The lesions were identical to those previously reported in a natural outbreak of dysentery in calves, from which E. coli S102-9 was isolated, and to those seen in gnotobiotic calves experimentally infected with S102-9. Reinfection of the three surviving calves 16-20 days later with S102-9 and primary infection of two calves aged 24 and 51 days did not cause dysentery. Four of 659 coliforms isolated from field outbreaks of calf diarrhoea resembled the atypical strain S102-9. These four isolates and S102-9 did not produce heat-stable enterotoxin, but all produced a toxin cytopathic for Vero and HeLa cells. Two of the four isolates were inoculated alone into 4-day-old gnotobiotic calves deprived of colostrum; neither calf developed dysentery but microscopic lesions identical to those produced by S102-9 were detected in the large intestines of both animals.