Does the conjunctivochalasis accompanied by pseudoexfoliation syndrome affect the ocular surface and anterior segment structures?

Int Ophthalmol. 2022 Oct;42(10):3079-3087. doi: 10.1007/s10792-022-02294-6. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Abstract

Purpose: The probability of the coexistence of conjunctivochalasis and pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PES) in the same individual may increase with aging. We investigated the effects of conjunctivochalasis accompanied by PES on the ocular surface (OS) and anterior segment (AS) structures.

Methods: Cases with only conjunctivochalasis were determined as Group 1 (n = 62), cases with conjunctivochalasis accompanied by PES as Group 2 (n = 45), and healthy individuals as Group 3 (n = 56). The OS and AS parameters of the groups were compared.

Results: There were a higher grade-3 conjunctivochalasis rate (17.7% vs. 46.7%, p = 0.039), a greater "mean grade of conjunctivochalasis" value (1.72 ± 0.24 vs. 2.29 ± 0.32, p = 0.036), and a higher "total conjunctivochalasis score" (4.27 ± 1.13 vs. 6.12 ± 1.35, p = 0.025) in Group 2 than in Group 1. Additionally, Group 2 had a shorter tear film break-up time (TBUT) (9.17 ± 2.53 vs. 5.41 ± 1.32, p = 0.010) and a greater OS disease index (OSDI) score (16.28 ± 3.15 vs. 27.36 ± 4.12, p = 0.037) than Group 1. Moreover, both Group 1 and Group 2 had shorter TBUTs (Group 1-3: p = 0.004; Group 2-3: p < 0.001) and greater OSDI scores (Group 1-3: p = 0.042; Group 2-3: p = 0.019) compared to Group 3. The groups' ocular surface staining scores, Schirmer 1 tests, central corneal thicknesses, keratometries, axial lengths, anterior chamber depths, lens thicknesses, and intraocular pressures were similar (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this was the first study comprehensively investigating the effects of conjunctivochalasis accompanied by PES on the OS and AS structures together. We found that conjunctivochalasis might cause the OS disease, while the presence of PES in conjunctivochalasis cases might worsen both the OS disease and conjunctivochalasis findings.

Keywords: Anterior segment; Conjunctivochalasis; Ocular surface; Pseudoexfoliation; Total conjunctivochalasis score.

MeSH terms

  • Aging
  • Conjunctival Diseases* / etiology
  • Cornea
  • Dry Eye Syndromes* / etiology
  • Exfoliation Syndrome* / complications
  • Exfoliation Syndrome* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure
  • Tears / chemistry