This review reports the experience of nine studies in Chinese maternity hospitals with insertions of an intrauterine device (IUD) at the time of cesarean section. In contrast to the usually high expulsion rates associated with immediate postpartum vaginal insertions, all nine studies reported low expulsion rates, thus resulting in high continuation rates with this procedure, comparable to those with interval insertions. This immediate post-cesarean section insertion procedure was also found to be safe. These findings are of programmatic importance for postpartum family planning delivery services and may eventually lead to an understanding of the expulsion mechanism in postpartum IUD contraception. Results of these reports have been synthesized in this review. Seven of these nine reports were originally in Chinese and were translated into English for the benefit of a broad international audience. Future research directions on this insertion procedure are also discussed.