A Computer-Based Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue (CFM-100) Test in Pilots' Medical Assessments

Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022 Apr 1;93(4):362-367. doi: 10.3357/AMHP.5943.2022.


OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effectiveness and identified the cutoff values of the computer-based Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue (CFM-100) test for screening color vision deficiencies in the pre-employment examination of civil aviators in China.METHODS: Firstly, subjects were stratified into normal, color weakness, and color blindness with the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plate test (IPPT) by two ophthalmologists. Then they randomly completed CFM-100 and Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue (FM-100) tests. Total error scores (TES) and the time taken for the CFM-100 and FM-100 were analyzed and the cutoff values for the CFM-100 were determined.RESULTS: Of 218 subjects, 159 were normal while 59 were diagnosed with dyschromatopsia. The TES of the CFM-100 were congruent with those of the FM-100 (20.0 ± 18.8 vs. 20.6 ± 17.7, 160.9 ± 66.0 vs. 151.1 ± 66.4). The testing time for the CFM-100, however, was less than the FM-100 (10.3 ± 2.8 min vs. 12.9 ± 2.9 min, 7.8 ± 2.5 min vs. 12.6 ± 3.3 min). The correlation coefficient R was 0.93 and Cohen's kappa was 0.89 for the two methods. Further analyses defined 34 as the cutoff value to differentiate excellent from fair color discrimination (sensitivity 58.0%, specificity 94.7%) and 101 as the cutoff value to judge fair vs. poor (sensitivity and specificity both 98.8%) for the CFM-100. The cut-off value was 72 for distinguishing normal from defective color vision (sensitivity 96.6%, specificity 98.7%) and 110 was for distinguishing color weakness from color blindness (sensitivity 97.6%, specificity 97.7%) for the CFM-100.CONCLUSIONS: The CFM-100 is an effective method for the diagnosis of dyschromatopsia with high sensitivity in screening airline pilots.Zhang Y, Ma J, Cheng S, Hu W. A computer-based Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue (CFM-100) test in pilots' medical assessments. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(4):362-367.

MeSH terms

  • Color Perception Tests / methods
  • Color Vision Defects* / diagnosis
  • Color Vision*
  • Computers
  • Humans
  • Sensitivity and Specificity