Despite recent advances in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) molecular characterization and targeted therapies, a majority of AML cases still lack therapeutically actionable targets. In 127 AML cases with unmet therapeutic needs, as defined by the exclusion of ELN favorable cases and of FLT3-ITD mutations, we identified 51 (40%) cases with alterations in RAS pathway genes (RAS+, mostly NF1, NRAS, KRAS, and PTPN11 genes). In 79 homogeneously treated AML patients from this cohort, RAS+ status were associated with higher white blood cell count, higher LDH, and reduced survival. In AML models of oncogenic addiction to RAS-MEK signaling, the MEK inhibitor trametinib demonstrated antileukemic activity in vitro and in vivo. However, the efficacy of trametinib was heterogeneous in ex vivo cultures of primary RAS+ AML patient specimens. From repurposing drug screens in RAS-activated AML cells, we identified pyrvinium pamoate, an anti-helminthic agent efficiently inhibiting the growth of RAS+ primary AML cells ex vivo, preferentially in trametinib-resistant PTPN11- or KRAS-mutated samples. Metabolic and genetic complementarity between trametinib and pyrvinium pamoate translated into anti-AML synergy in vitro. Moreover, this combination inhibited the propagation of RA+ AML cells in vivo in mice, indicating a potential for future clinical development of this strategy in AML.
© 2022. The Author(s).