Self-monitoring of blood glucose levels is currently being recommended for obese patients with type II diabetes to improve weight loss and glycemic control. To determine whether self-monitoring of blood glucose levels improves dietary compliance in these patients, 50 obese patients with type II diabetes were randomly assigned either to a standard behavioral weight control program or to a weight control program that included self-monitoring of blood glucose levels and focused on the weight-blood glucose relationship. Both groups lost significant amounts of weight and maintained their losses for at least one year; reductions in medication could be made for 70 percent of patients. These data suggest that the behavioral weight control used in this study may be of benefit to patients with type II diabetes. However, there was no evidence that the addition of self-monitoring of blood glucose levels to the treatment program improved the outcome in terms of weight loss, reduction in medication, dietary compliance, or mood state.