Structural variants (SVs) represent a major source of aberration in tumour genomes. Given the diversity in the size and type of SVs present in tumours, the accurate detection and interpretation of SVs in tumours is challenging. New classes of complex structural events in tumours are discovered frequently, and the definitions of the genomic consequences of complex events are constantly being refined. Detailed analyses of short-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data from large tumour cohorts facilitate the interrogation of SVs at orders of magnitude greater scale and depth. However, the inherent technical limitations of short-read WGS prevent us from accurately detecting and investigating the impact of all the SVs present in tumours. The expanded use of long-read WGS will be critical for improving the accuracy of SV detection, and in fully resolving complex SV events, both of which are crucial for determining the impact of SVs on tumour progression and clinical outcome. Despite the present limitations, we demonstrate that SVs play an important role in tumourigenesis. In particular, SVs contribute significantly to late-stage tumour development and to intratumoural heterogeneity. The evolutionary trajectories of SVs represent a window into the clonal dynamics in tumours, a comprehensive understanding of which will be vital for influencing patient outcomes in the future. Recent findings have highlighted many clinical applications of SVs in cancer, from early detection to biomarkers for treatment response and prognosis. As the methods to detect and interpret SVs improve, elucidating the full breadth of the complex SV landscape and determining how these events modulate tumour evolution will improve our understanding of cancer biology and our ability to capitalise on the utility of SVs in the clinical management of cancer patients. © 2022 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
Keywords: chromothripsis; extrachromosomal DNA; patient stratification; structural variants; tumour evolution; whole genome sequencing.
© 2022 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.