Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has advanced treatment options for a variety of neurologic and neuropsychiatric conditions. As the technology for DBS continues to progress, treatment efficacy will continue to improve and disease indications will expand. Hardware advances such as longer-lasting batteries will reduce the frequency of battery replacement and segmented leads will facilitate improvements in the effectiveness of stimulation and have the potential to minimize stimulation side effects. Targeting advances such as specialized imaging sequences and "connectomics" will facilitate improved accuracy for lead positioning and trajectory planning. Software advances such as closed-loop stimulation and remote programming will enable DBS to be a more personalized and accessible technology. The future of DBS continues to be promising and holds the potential to further improve quality of life. In this review we will address the past, present and future of DBS.
Keywords: closed-loop; connectomics; deep brain stimulation; hardware advances; novel waveforms; software advances; targeting strategies.
Copyright © 2022 Frey, Cagle, Johnson, Wong, Hilliard, Butson, Okun and de Hemptinne.