Healthy Lifestyle Score Including Sleep Duration and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Am J Prev Med. 2022 Jul;63(1):33-42. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2022.01.027. Epub 2022 Mar 28.


Introduction: Although insufficient or prolonged sleep duration is associated with cardiovascular disease, sleep duration is not included in most lifestyle scores. This study evaluates the relationship between a lifestyle score, including sleep duration and cardiovascular disease risk.

Methods: A prospective analysis among 67,250 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 29,114 men in Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2016) was conducted in 2021. Lifestyle factors were updated every 2-4 years using self-reported questionnaires. The traditional lifestyle score was defined as not smoking, having a normal BMI, being physically active (≥30 minutes/day of moderate physical activity), eating a healthy diet, and drinking alcohol in moderation. Low-risk sleep duration, defined as sleeping ≥6 to <8 hours/day, was included as an additional component in the updated lifestyle score. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate cardiovascular disease risk. The likelihood-ratio test and C-statistics were used to compare both scores.

Results: A total of 11,710 incident cardiovascular disease cases during follow-up were documented. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios comparing 6 with 0 low-risk factors in the healthy lifestyle score including sleep duration were 0.17 (95% CI=0.12, 0.23) for cardiovascular disease, 0.14 (95% CI=0.10, 0.21) for coronary heart disease, and 0.20 (95% CI=0.12, 0.33) for stroke. Approximately 66% (95% CI=56%, 75%) of cardiovascular disease, 67% (95% CI=54%, 77%) of coronary heart disease, and 62% (95% CI=42%, 76%) of stroke cases were attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle including sleep. Adding sleep duration to the score slightly increased the C-statistics from 0.64 (95% CI=0.63, 0.64) to 0.65 (95% CI=0.64, 0.65) (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Adopting a healthy lifestyle including sleep recommendations could substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in U.S. adults.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / prevention & control
  • Coronary Disease*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Healthy Lifestyle
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sleep
  • Stroke*