Neuroimmune Interactions in Peripheral Organs

Annu Rev Neurosci. 2022 Jul 8;45:339-360. doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-111020-105359. Epub 2022 Apr 1.


Interactions between the nervous and immune systems were recognized long ago, but recent studies show that this crosstalk occurs more frequently than was previously appreciated. Moreover, technological advances have enabled the identification of the molecular mediators and receptors that enable the interaction between these two complex systems and provide new insights on the role of neuroimmune crosstalk in organismal physiology. Most neuroimmune interactions occur at discrete anatomical locations in which neurons and immune cells colocalize. Here, we describe the interactions of the different branches of the peripheral nervous system with immune cells in various organs, including the skin, intestine, lung, and adipose tissue. We highlight how neuroimmune crosstalk orchestrates physiological processes such as host defense, tissue repair, metabolism, and thermogenesis. Unraveling these intricate relationships is invaluable to explore the therapeutic potential of neuroimmune interactions.

Keywords: mucosal immunology; neuroimmune interactions; neuroimmunology.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Immune System*
  • Neuroimmunomodulation* / physiology
  • Peripheral Nervous System