Cuffless blood pressure (BP) measurement has become a popular field due to clinical need and technological opportunity. However, no method has been broadly accepted hitherto. The objective of this review is to accelerate progress in the development and application of cuffless BP measurement methods. We begin by describing the principles of conventional BP measurement, outstanding hypertension/hypotension problems that could be addressed with cuffless methods, and recent technological advances, including smartphone proliferation and wearable sensing, that are driving the field. We then present all major cuffless methods under investigation, including their current evidence. Our presentation includes calibrated methods (i.e., pulse transit time, pulse wave analysis, and facial video processing) and uncalibrated methods (i.e., cuffless oscillometry, ultrasound, and volume control). The calibrated methods can offer convenience advantages, whereas the uncalibrated methods do not require periodic cuff device usage or demographic inputs. We conclude by summarizing the field and highlighting potentially useful future research directions.
Keywords: blood pressure determination; cuffless blood pressure; oscillometry; pulse transit time; pulse wave analysis; wearable electronic devices.