BPA disrupted the testis testosterone levels by interfering ER enrichments within StAR 5' flanking region in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2022 Jul:257:109338. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2022.109338. Epub 2022 Apr 2.


Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used endocrine disruptor, which has attracted much attention due to its harmful effects on male reproduction. To investigate the interference of BPA on steroid synthesis in males, male rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to 15 μg L-1 BPA for 7, 14 and 21 d. Meanwhile, a positive control group was performed with 25 ng L-1 17α-ethynyl estradiol (EE2). Results showed that BPA exposure induced lower testosterone (T) levels, while affecting the transcripts of steroidogenic gene StAR. Moreover, BPA induced abnormal germ cells proliferation in the testis in rare minnow. Transcriptome analysis showed that 354 transcripts significantly differentially expressed after BPA exposure for 14 d, several of them were enriched in the signaling pathways of cell cycle process, PPAR signaling pathway, the steroid synthesis pathway and estrogen signaling pathway. BPA significantly increased estrogen receptor (ER) levels and induced abnormal protein levels of PPARγ. BPA disrupted the StAR expression by interfering ER enrichments within StAR 5' flanking region. Additionally, our study also revealed that BPA and EE2 might have different mechanisms for interfering with steroid hormone levels and germ cells proliferation in the testis.

Keywords: Bisphenol A; Cell proliferation; Gobiocypris rarus; Testis; Testosterone.

MeSH terms

  • 5' Flanking Region
  • Animals
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / metabolism
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / toxicity
  • Cyprinidae* / metabolism
  • Male
  • Phenols
  • Steroids / metabolism
  • Steroids / pharmacology
  • Testis*
  • Testosterone / metabolism


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Phenols
  • Steroids
  • Testosterone
  • bisphenol A