Endocrine immune-related adverse events: Adrenal, parathyroid, diabetes insipidus, and lipoatrophy

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2022 May;36(3):101635. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2022.101635. Epub 2022 Feb 28.


Immune checkpoint inhibitors are being prescribed increasingly widely for a range of malignancies. They are effective at treating certain cancers, but also have significant side effects. Evidence suggests that efficacy is greatest in patients who experience one or more immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Common irAEs include skin and hepatic reactions, and a range of immune-related endocrinopathies. These include hypophysitis, thyroid disease, and autoimmune diabetes mellitus, and rarer endocrinopathies such as primary adrenal insufficiency, diabetes insipidus, parathyroid disease, autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, lipodystrophy, and ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. Herein, we review the current literature related to these rarer immunotherapy-induced endocrinopathies.

Keywords: Immunotherapy; adrenal insufficiency; diabetes insipidus; hypoparathyroidism; immune checkpoint inhibitors; lipodystrophy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Insipidus* / etiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus*
  • Endocrine System Diseases* / chemically induced
  • Humans
  • Hypophysitis* / etiology
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
  • Immunotherapy / adverse effects
  • Lipodystrophy* / chemically induced
  • Neoplasms* / drug therapy


  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors