Objective: To determine antibiotic utilization for NICU infants, as compared to non-NICU infants, in the first 3 years after birth hospital discharge.
Study design: Retrospective observational study using data from Medicaid Analytic Extract including 667 541 newborns discharged from 2007-2011. Associations between NICU admission and antibiotic prescription were assessed using regression models, adjusting for confounders, and stratified by gestational age and birth weight.
Results: 596 999 infants (89.4%) received ≥1 antibiotic, with a median of 4 prescriptions per 3 person-years (IQR 2-8). Prescribed antibiotics and associated indication were similar between groups. Compared to non-NICU infants (N = 586 227), NICU infants (N = 81 314) received more antibiotic prescriptions (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] (1.08,1.08)). Similar results were observed in all NICU subgroups.
Conclusions: Antibiotic utilization in early childhood was higher among infants discharged from NICUs compared to non-NICU infants.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.