Consensus Statement on Bone Conduction Devices and Active Middle Ear Implants in Conductive and Mixed Hearing Loss

Otol Neurotol. 2022 Jun 1;43(5):513-529. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000003491. Epub 2022 Apr 4.


Nowadays, several options are available to treat patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss. Whenever surgical intervention is not possible or contra-indicated, and amplification by a conventional hearing device (e.g., behind-the-ear device) is not feasible, then implantable hearing devices are an indispensable next option. Implantable bone-conduction devices and middle-ear implants have advantages but also limitations concerning complexity/invasiveness of the surgery, medical complications, and effectiveness. To counsel the patient, the clinician should have a good overview of the options with regard to safety and reliability as well as unequivocal technical performance data. The present consensus document is the outcome of an extensive iterative process including ENT specialists, audiologists, health-policy scientists, and representatives/technicians of the main companies in this field. This document should provide a first framework for procedures and technical characterization to enhance effective communication between these stakeholders, improving health care.

MeSH terms

  • Bone Conduction
  • Deafness*
  • Hearing Aids*
  • Hearing Loss* / surgery
  • Hearing Loss, Conductive / surgery
  • Hearing Loss, Mixed Conductive-Sensorineural* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Ossicular Prosthesis*
  • Reproducibility of Results