OKT3 levels and the presence of human antibodies to OKT3 were determined in the plasma of 66 patients receiving OKT3 monoclonal antibody (5 mg i.v. daily) for the treatment of acute renal allograft rejection. Plasma 24-hr trough levels of OKT3 rose over the first three days and then remained in a steady state over the remainder of the 14-day period of OKT3 therapy, with a mean level of 902 +/- 71 ng/ml (mean + SEM). On termination of OKT3 therapy plasma levels of OKT3 dropped to very low levels after 3 days. Host antibodies, usually of low titer, developed in a number of patients, usually 2-3 weeks after the start of OKT3 therapy. 37/43 patients (86%) who received OKT3 alone developed IgG anti-OKT3 antibodies; 9/23 patients (39%) who received Cytoxan in addition to OKT3 developed IgG anti-OKT3 antibodies, a significantly lower (P = 0.0002) incidence. The present regimens permitted maintenance of adequate levels of circulating OKT3 for 2 weeks, a sufficient time to reverse acute renal allograft rejection in most patients.