The results of renal transplantation in patients with amyloidosis were studied in 45 patients receiving primary cadaver grafts at a single center between March 1973 and October 1981. A control group of 45 patients with glomerulonephritis receiving primary cadaver grafts during the same period was also studied. These were matched according to the number of A and B locus incompatibilities and the date of transplantation. The 3-year survival of the patients with amyloidosis was statistically significantly inferior (51%) to that of the controls (79%). Age over 40 years was the major factor determining low survival in these patients. Mortality was concentrated in the early posttransplantation period. The 3-year graft survival rate was the same in amyloidotics (38%) and controls (45%); with death of patients not included in graft loss, the corresponding figures were 53% and 49%. Appearance of amyloid in the transplant was established by biopsy in four patients at 11-37 months of follow-up. Renal transplants functioning for more than one year were calculated to incur a minimum risk of 20% of acquiring amyloid.