Associations of sodium and potassium intake with chronic kidney disease in a prospective cohort study: findings from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, 2008-2017

BMC Nephrol. 2022 Apr 6;23(1):133. doi: 10.1186/s12882-022-02754-2.


Background: According to dietary recommendations, reduction of sodium intake has potential to reduce Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) risk; however the role of dietary potassium and the sodium -to- potassium ratio in the development of CKD is unclear.

Methods: We studied 9778 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) from four US urban communities. Participants were aged 18-74 yrs., free from CKD at baseline in 2008-2011 and re-examined between 2014 and - 2017. Dietary intake of sodium, potassium and the ratio of dietary sodium -to- potassium were measured from two baseline 24-h dietary recalls. Incident CKD was defined as: 1) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline of 1 unit per year and eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 or 2) albumin to creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g at the follow-up visit. We used multivariable survey weighted Poisson regression to estimate adjusted incident rates of incident CKD.

Results: At baseline, mean age was 41 years. Average follow up time was 6.2 years. From fully adjusted Poisson regression analyses, self-reported sodium intake was not associated with incident CKD. However, for each 500 mg decrement in potassium intake, there was an 11% increase risk of incident CKD (IRR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.24). Additionally, every 1 M ratio increment of sodium -to -potassium ratio was associated with a 21% increased risk of incident CKD (IRR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.45), p < 0.05).

Conclusions: We conclude that diets low in potassium and high in sodium are associated with increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease among healthy US Hispanic/Latino adults.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; Cohort study; Epidemiology; Potassium; Sodium.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Potassium
  • Potassium, Dietary
  • Prospective Studies
  • Public Health
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Sodium*
  • Young Adult


  • Potassium, Dietary
  • Sodium
  • Potassium