Adverse experiences resulting in emergency medical treatment seeking following the use of magic mushrooms

J Psychopharmacol. 2022 Aug;36(8):965-973. doi: 10.1177/02698811221084063. Epub 2022 Apr 7.


Background: Psilocybin-containing mushrooms are used for recreational, spiritual, self-development and therapeutic purposes. However, physiologically relatively nontoxic, adverse reactions are occasionally reported.

Aims: This study investigated the 12-month prevalence and nature of magic mushroom-related adverse reactions resulting in emergency medical treatment seeking in a global sample of people reporting magic mushroom use.

Methods: We use data from the 2017 Global Drug Survey - a large anonymous online survey on patterns of drug use conducted between November 2016 and January 2017.

Results: Out of 9233 past year magic mushroom users, 19 (0.2%) reported having sought emergency medical treatment, with a per-event risk estimate of 0.06%. Young age was the only predictor associated with higher risk of emergency medical presentations. The most common symptoms were psychological, namely anxiety/panic and paranoia/suspiciousness. Poor 'mindset', poor 'setting' and mixing substances were most reported reasons for incidents. All but one respondent returned back to normality within 24 h.

Conclusions: The results confirm psilocybin mushrooms are a relatively safe drug, with serious incidents rare and short lasting. Providing harm-reduction information likely plays a key role in preventing adverse effects. More research is needed to examine the detailed circumstances and predictors of adverse reactions including rarer physiological reactions.

Keywords: Adverse effects; magic mushrooms; psilocybin; psychedelics; safety.

MeSH terms

  • Agaricales*
  • Hallucinogens* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Psilocybe*
  • Psilocybin / adverse effects


  • Hallucinogens
  • Psilocybin

Supplementary concepts

  • Psilocybe cubensis