Purpose: How to effectively integrate pharmacists into team-based models of care to maximize the benefit they bring to patients and care teams, especially during times of primary care transformation (PCT), remains unknown. The objective of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators when integrating pharmacist-provided comprehensive medication management (CMM) services into a health system's team-based PCT using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR).
Methods: Semistructured qualitative interviews were carried out with 22 care team members regarding their perceptions of the implementation of CMM in the PCT. Transcripts were coded to identify CMM implementation barriers and facilitators, and resulting codes were mapped to corresponding CFIR domains and constructs.
Results: Fifteen codes emerged that were labeled as either a barrier or a facilitator to implementing CMM in the PCT. Facilitators were the perception of CMM as an invaluable resource, precharting, tailored appointment lengths, insurance coverage, increased pharmacy presence, enhanced team-based care, location of CMM, and identification of CMM advocates. Barriers included limited clinic leadership involvement, a need for additional resources, CMM pharmacists not always feeling part of the core team, understanding of and training around CMM's role in the PCT, changing mindsets to utilize resources such as CMM more frequently, underutilization of CMM, and CMM scheduling.
Conclusion: Clinical pharmacists providing CMM represent a valuable interdisciplinary care team member who can help improve healthcare quality and access to primary care. Identifying and addressing implementation barriers and facilitators early during PCT rollout is critical to the success of team-based services such as CMM and becoming a learning health system.
Keywords: comprehensive medication management; implementation science; medication therapy management; practice transformation; primary care.
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