Toxoplasmosis in Human and Animals Around the World. Diagnosis and Perspectives in the One Health Approach

Acta Trop. 2022 Jul:231:106432. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2022.106432. Epub 2022 Apr 4.


Toxoplasmosis is a unique health disease that significantly affects the health of humans, domestic animals, wildlife and is present in ecosystems, including water, soil and food. Toxoplasma gondii is one of the best-adapted parasites in the word. This parasite is able to persist for long periods in its hosts, in different geographic regions of the word. This review summarizes the current literature of these themes, focusing on: (1) toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic infection; (2) One health approach and toxoplasmosis; (3) human toxoplasmosis; (4) animal toxoplasmosis; (5) toxoplasmosis diagnosis, as immunological, parasitological and molecular diagnosis; (6) T. gondii outbreaks caused by infected meat, milk and dairy products, as well as, vegetables and water consume; (7) studies in experimental models; (8) genetic characterization of T. gondii strains; (9) extracellular vesicles and miRNA; and (10) future perspectives on T. gondii and toxoplasmosis. The vast prevalence of toxoplasmosis in both humans and animals and the dispersion and resistence of T. gondii parasites in environment highlight the importance of the one health approach in diagnostic and control of the disease. Here the different aspects of the one health approach are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; Laboratorial diagnosis; One health approach; Toxoplasma gondii; Toxoplasmosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ecosystem
  • Humans
  • One Health*
  • Toxoplasma* / genetics
  • Toxoplasmosis, Animal* / epidemiology
  • Water


  • Water