Development and usability of a web-based patient-tailored tool to support adherence to urate-lowering therapy in gout

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2022 Apr 7;22(1):95. doi: 10.1186/s12911-022-01833-6.


Background: The aim of this study is to develop and assess usability of a web-based patient-tailored tool to support adherence to urate-lowering therapy (ULT) among gout patients in a clinical setting.

Methods: The content of the tool was based on the Integrated Change (I-Change) model. This model combines various socio-cognitive theories and assumes behavioral change is a result of becoming aware of the necessity of change by integrating pre-motivational, motivational, and post-motivational factors. An expert group (five gout experts, three health services researchers, and one health behavior expert) was assembled that decided in three meetings on the tool's specific content (assessments and personalized feedback) using information from preparatory qualitative studies and literature reviews. Usability was tested by a think aloud approach and validated usability questionnaires.

Results: The I-Change Gout tool contains three consecutive sessions comprising 80 questions, 66 tailored textual feedback messages, and 40 tailored animated videos. Navigation through the sessions was determined by the patients' intention to adapt suboptimal ULT adherence. After the sessions, patients receive an overview of the personalized advices and plans to support ULT adherence. Usability testing among 20 gout patients that (ever) used ULT and seven healthcare professionals revealed an overall score for the tool of 8.4 ± 0.9 and 7.7 ± 1.0 (scale 1-10). Furthermore, participants reported a high intention to use and/or recommend the tool to others. Participants identified some issues for further improvement (e.g. redundant questions, technical issues, and text readability). If relevant, these were subsequently implemented in the I-Change Gout tool, to allow further testing among the following participants.

Conclusion: This study provides initial support for the usability by patients and healthcare professionals of the I-Change Gout tool to support ULT adherence behavior.

Keywords: Gout; Health information system; Medication adherence; Program evaluation; Self-management.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Gout Suppressants / therapeutic use
  • Gout* / chemically induced
  • Gout* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Motivation
  • Uric Acid* / therapeutic use


  • Gout Suppressants
  • Uric Acid