Background: In the INBUILD trial in patients with progressive fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), nintedanib reduced the rate of decline in forced vital capacity compared with placebo, with side-effects that were manageable for most patients. We used data from the INBUILD trial to characterize further the safety and tolerability of nintedanib.
Methods: Patients with fibrosing ILDs other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), who had experienced progression of ILD within the 24 months before screening despite management deemed appropriate in clinical practice, were randomized to receive nintedanib 150 mg twice daily or placebo. To manage adverse events, treatment could be interrupted or the dose reduced to 100 mg twice daily. We assessed adverse events and dose adjustments over the whole trial.
Results: A total of 332 patients received nintedanib and 331 received placebo. Median exposure to trial drug was 17.4 months in both treatment groups. Adverse events led to treatment discontinuation in 22.0% of patients treated with nintedanib and 14.5% of patients who received placebo. The most frequent adverse event was diarrhea, reported in 72.3% of patients in the nintedanib group and 25.7% of patients in the placebo group. Diarrhea led to treatment discontinuation in 6.3% of patients in the nintedanib group and 0.3% of the placebo group. In the nintedanib and placebo groups, respectively, 48.2% and 15.7% of patients had ≥ 1 dose reduction and/or treatment interruption. Serious adverse events were reported in 44.3% of patients in the nintedanib group and 49.5% of patients in the placebo group. The adverse event profile of nintedanib was generally consistent across subgroups based on age, sex, race and weight, but nausea, vomiting and dose reductions were more common among female than male patients.
Conclusions: The adverse event profile of nintedanib in patients with progressive fibrosing ILDs other than IPF is consistent with its established safety and tolerability profile in patients with IPF and characterized mainly by gastrointestinal events, particularly diarrhea. Management of adverse events using symptomatic therapies and dose adjustment is important to minimize the impact of adverse events and help patients remain on therapy. Trial registration Registered 21 December 2016, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02999178 A video abstract summarizing the key results presented in this manuscript is available at: https://www.globalmedcomms.com/respiratory/cottin/INBUILDsafety .
Keywords: Adverse drug event; Clinical trial; Diarrhea; Patient adherence; Pulmonary fibrosis.
© 2022. The Author(s).