Sodium, Added Sugar and Saturated Fat Intake in Relation to Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease Events in Adults: Canadian National Nutrition Survey Linked with Vital Statistics and Health Administrative Databases

Br J Nutr. 2022 Apr 8;1-33. doi: 10.1017/S000711452200099X. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

This study aimed to determine whether higher intakes of sodium, added sugars and saturated fat are prospectively associated with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality in a diverse population. The nationally-representative Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)-Nutrition 2004 was linked with the Canadian Vital Statistics - Death Database and the Discharge Abstract Database (2004-2011). Outcomes were all-cause mortality and CVD incidence and mortality. There were 1,722 mortality cases within 115,566 person-years of follow-up (median (IQR) of 7.48 (7.22-7.70) years). There was no statistically significant association between sodium density or energy from saturated fat and all-cause mortality or CVD events for all models investigated. The association of usual percentage of energy from added sugars and all-cause mortality was significant in the base model with participants consuming 11.47% of energy from added sugars having 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01-1.77) times higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to those consuming 4.17% of energy from added sugars. Overall, our results did not find statistically significant associations between the three nutrients and risk of all-cause mortality or CVD events at the population level in Canada. Large-scale linked national nutrition datasets may not have the discrimination to identify prospective impacts of nutrients on health measures.

Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; National nutrition survey; Nutrients of public health concern; health administrative databases.