Late Balloon Valvuloplasty for Transcatheter Heart Valve Dysfunction

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022 Apr 12;79(14):1340-1351. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2022.01.041.


Background: Transcatheter heart valve (THV) dysfunction with an elevated gradient or paravalvular leak (PVL) may be documented late after THV implantation. Medical management, paravalvular plugs, redo THV replacement, or surgical valve replacement may be considered. However, late balloon dilatation is rarely utilized because of concerns about safety or lack of efficacy.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of late dilatation in the management of THV dysfunction.

Methods: All patients who underwent late dilatation for symptomatic THV dysfunction at 2 institutions between 2016 and 2021 were identified. Baseline, procedural characteristics, and clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were documented. THV frame expansion was assessed by multislice computed tomography before and after late dilatation.

Results: Late dilatation was performed in 30 patients a median of 4.6 months (IQR: 2.3-11.0 months) after THV implantation in the aortic (n = 25; 83.3%), mitral (n = 2; 6.7%), tricuspid (n = 2; 6.7%) and pulmonary (n = 1; 3.3%) position. THV underexpansion was documented at baseline, and frame expansion substantially improved after late dilatation. The mean transvalvular gradient fell in all patients. For aortic THVs specifically, mean transaortic gradient fell from 25.4 ± 13.9 mm Hg to 10.8 ± 4.1 mm Hg; P < 0.001. PVL was reduced to ≤mild in all 11 patients with a previous >mild PVL. Embolic events, stroke, annular injury, and bioprosthetic leaflet injury were not observed. Symptomatic benefit was durable at 19.6 months (IQR: 14.8-36.1 months) follow-up.

Conclusions: Balloon dilatation late after THV implantation appears feasible and safe in appropriately selected patients and may result in THV frame expansion resulting in improvements in hemodynamic performance and PVL.

Keywords: balloon dilatation; transcatheter aortic valve replacement; transcatheter heart valve dysfunction; transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve; transcatheter tricuspid valve-in-valve; valvuloplasty.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aortic Valve / surgery
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / surgery
  • Balloon Valvuloplasty* / adverse effects
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis*
  • Humans
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement* / adverse effects
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement* / methods
  • Treatment Outcome