Sex as a Biological Variable in Cardiovascular Diseases: JACC Focus Seminar 1/7

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022 Apr 12;79(14):1388-1397. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.10.050.


Sex and gender influence all aspects of cardiovascular health and disease-including epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestation, disease progression, and response to treatment-in complex and interrelated ways. Sex-based and gender-based differences have been identified in risk and presentation of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); however, failure to address sex and gender as key variables in CVD research and reporting and limited understanding of differences have contributed to disparities in risk assessment, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes. Improved consideration of both sex and gender in all phases of the biomedical research continuum, along with educational and training curricula focused on the role of sex and gender in CVD, are needed to provide targeted therapies and improve cardiovascular health outcomes for all.

Keywords: cardiovascular; sex and gender; sex as a biological variable; sex differences.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / therapy
  • Heart
  • Humans
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Sex Factors