Sex-Related Outcomes of Medical, Percutaneous, and Surgical Interventions for Coronary Artery Disease: JACC Focus Seminar 3/7

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022 Apr 12;79(14):1407-1425. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.07.066.


Biological and sociocultural differences between men and women are complex and likely account for most of the variations in the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of coronary artery disease (CAD) between the 2 sexes. Worse outcomes in women have been described following both conservative and invasive treatments of CAD. For example, increased levels of residual platelet reactivity during treatment with antiplatelet drugs, higher rates of adverse cardiovascular outcomes following percutaneous coronary revascularization, and higher operative and long-term mortality after coronary bypass surgery have been reported in women compared with in men. Despite the growing recognition of sex-specific determinants of outcomes, representation of women in clinical studies remains low and sex-specific management strategies are generally not provided in guidelines. This review summarizes the current evidence on sex-related differences in patients with CAD, focusing on the differential outcomes following medical therapy, percutaneous coronary interventions, and coronary artery bypass surgery.

Keywords: coronary artery disease; sex; women.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Coronary Artery Bypass
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / adverse effects
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Treatment Outcome