Incident cardiovascular events and early mortality in patients with revascularized critical limb ischemia

J Med Vasc. 2022 Feb;47(1):19-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jdmv.2022.02.001. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Abstract

Objectives: Patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) present a high risk of cardiovascular events and death. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and one-year mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous revascularization procedure for CLI.

Methods: This investigation is a retrospective analysis of an ongoing cohort study in patients with CLI undergoing endovascular revascularization, hospitalized in the vascular medicine department from November 2013 to December 2018. Major cardiovascular events were collected during the first year after revascularization procedure and were defined as heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke and sudden death. Mortality and major limb amputations, defined as above-the-ankle amputation, were determined during the one-year follow-up period. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors independently associated with the occurrence of MACE and one-year mortality after revascularization procedure. A P≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: The study included 285 consecutive patients, 157 men (55%) and 128 women (45%), with a mean age of 77.8±12 years. Treated hypertension was present in 222 (78%) patients; diabetes was present in 137 (48%) patients; 112 (39%) patients had known coronary heart disease and 20 (7%) patients were dialysis dependent. During the one-year follow-up after revascularization procedure, 75 (26.3%) patients presented an incident cardiovascular event, of whom 19 (6.7%) patients in the perioperative period. Cumulative mortality rate was 26.7% (76 patients) mostly from cardiovascular causes. Twenty-five patients (8.8%) experienced major amputation. In multivariate analysis, the occurrence of MACE was associated with an increased mortality risk (HR 6.96 (2.99-16.94), P<0.001). Other variables associated with an increased mortality were living in a nursing home and malnutrition. Decompensated heart failure and coronary heart disease were both associated with incident MACE in multivariate analysis, independently of confounders.

Conclusion: In the present study population, incident MACE were prevalent in the year following endovascular revascularization procedure in patients with CLI and were associated with an increased risk of mortality. Coronary heart disease and decompensated heart failure are important contributors for the occurrence of MACE. In this elderly patient population with CLI, these results should be taken into account during the multidisciplinary team meeting before consideration of revascularization procedure.

Keywords: Cardiovascular events; Critical limb ischemia; Mortality.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischemia
  • Cohort Studies
  • Critical Illness
  • Female
  • Heart Failure* / epidemiology
  • Heart Failure* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Ischemia
  • Limb Salvage
  • Male
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease* / diagnosis
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease* / epidemiology
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease* / surgery
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome