Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis and Other Child, Family, and Community Risk Factors for Obesity among Children and Adolescents Aged Ten to Seventeen Years in the United States: A Mediation Analysis

Child Obes. 2023 Jan;19(1):57-67. doi: 10.1089/chi.2021.0260. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Abstract

Background: This study explored whether there are mediated effects of child and family risk in the association between community and organizational risk and obesity among children and adolescents aged 10-17 years using 2017-2018 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) data, addressing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring conditions. Methods: This cross-sectional study (N = 27,157) used 2017-2018 NSCH data. Frequency distributions and chi-square tests were used to describe participants with and without ASD. Cumulative risk indices were created for child, family, community, and organizational level risk, and mediation analyses were conducted in a two-mediator model (X1: community risk, X2: organizational risk, M1: child risk, M2: family risk) for the dichotomous outcome (Y: obesity). Path analyses were performed using generalized structural equation modeling in Stata 16.0. Results: Direct effects for all four risk indices were associated with obesity in single index models (all p < 0.001); only child and family risk indices were associated with obesity in a full model with all four risk indices (both p < 0.001). When child and family risk indices were assessed as mediators, the indirect effects of community and organizational risk were significant (all p < 0.0001). The total effect of community risk on obesity was significant with family risk as a mediator (p = 0.002). The total effect of organizational risk was not significant with either mediator. Conclusion: Findings suggest that child and family factors play a strong role in obesity risk and that ASD contributes to this risk. Community risk may be another strong predictor of obesity, mediated by family risk. Additional research on social-ecological risk factors for obesity is needed to identify leverage points to improve obesity risk in children and adolescents with and without ASD.

Keywords: ASD; adolescence; childhood; cross-sectional; structural equation modeling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder* / complications
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder* / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Mediation Analysis
  • Pediatric Obesity* / complications
  • Pediatric Obesity* / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology