Among intra-cellular homeostasis mechanisms, ubiquitination plays a critical role in protein metabolism regulation by degrading proteins via activating a broad spectrum of ubiquitin chains. In fact, ubiquitination and sumoylation signaling pathways are characterized by increased complexity regarding the molecules and their interactions. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (Ub-PS) recognizes and targets a broad spectrum of protein substrates. Ubiquitin conjugation modifies each substrate protein determining its biochemical fate (degradation). A major functional activity of Ub-PS is autophagy mechanism regulation. Interestingly, Ub-PS promotes all stages of bulk autophagy (initiation, execution, and termination). Autophagy is a crucial catabolic process that provides protein degradation and for this reason the interaction with Ub-PS is crucial. Furthermore, ubiquitination controls and regulates specific types of protein targets. Ub-PS is also involved in oxidative cellular stress and DNA damage response. Additionally, the functional role of Ub-PS in ribosome machinery regulation seems to be crucial. Concerning carcinogenesis, Ub-PS is involved in malignant disease development and progression by negatively affecting the corresponding TGF-B-, MEEK/MAPK/ERK-JNK- dependent signaling pathways. In the current review article, we describe the role of Ub-PS biochemical modifications and alterations in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
Keywords: Ubiquitination; carcinoma; oral; pathophysiology; protein degradation; review.
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