The Influence of Ketone Bodies on Circadian Processes Regarding Appetite, Sleep and Hormone Release: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Nutrients. 2022 Mar 28;14(7):1410. doi: 10.3390/nu14071410.


Chrononutrition is an emerging branch of chronobiology focusing on the profound interactions between biological rhythms and metabolism. This framework suggests that, just like all biological processes, even nutrition follows a circadian pattern. Recent findings elucidated the metabolic roles of circadian clocks in the regulation of both hormone release and the daily feeding-fasting cycle. Apart from serving as energy fuel, ketone bodies play pivotal roles as signaling mediators and drivers of gene transcription, promoting food anticipation and loss of appetite. Herein we provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the effects of the ketogenic diets on biological processes that follow circadian rhythms, among them appetite, sleep, and endocrine function.

Keywords: appetite; chrononutrition; circadian rhythm; clock gene; hormone regulation; ketone bodies; sleep.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Appetite
  • Circadian Clocks* / physiology
  • Circadian Rhythm* / physiology
  • Hormones
  • Ketone Bodies
  • Sleep / physiology


  • Hormones
  • Ketone Bodies