Influence of Heating during Cooking on Trans Fatty Acid Content of Edible Oils: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Nutrients. 2022 Apr 2;14(7):1489. doi: 10.3390/nu14071489.


Consumption of trans fatty acids (TFA) is associated with adverse health outcomes and is a considerable burden on morbidity and mortality globally. TFA may be generated by common cooking practices and hence contribute to daily dietary intake. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between heating edible oils and change in their TFA content. A systematic search of experimental studies investigating the effect of various methods of heating on TFA content of edible oils was conducted in Medline and Embase since their inception up to 1 October 2020 without language restrictions. Comparable data were analysed using mixed multilevel linear models taking into account individual study variation. Thirty-three studies encompassing twenty-one different oils were included in this review. Overall, heating to temperatures <200 °C had no appreciable impact on different TFA levels. Between 200 and 240 °C, levels of C18:2 t (0.05% increase per 10 °C rise in temperature, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.05%), C18:3t (0.18%, 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.21%), and total TFA (0.38%, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.55%) increased with temperature. A further increase in total TFA was observed with prolonged heating between 200 and 240 °C. Our findings suggest that heating edible oils to common cooking temperatures (≤200 °C) has minimal effect on TFA generation whereas heating to higher temperatures can increase TFA level. This provides further evidence in favour of public health advice that heating oils to very high temperatures and prolonged heating of oils should be avoided.

Keywords: baking; cooking; food policy; frying.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Cooking
  • Food
  • Heating
  • Plant Oils / analysis
  • Trans Fatty Acids* / adverse effects
  • Trans Fatty Acids* / analysis


  • Plant Oils
  • Trans Fatty Acids