Overview of the Complex Relationship between Epigenetics Markers, CTG Repeat Instability and Symptoms in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Mar 23;23(7):3477. doi: 10.3390/ijms23073477.


Among the trinucleotide repeat disorders, myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is one of the most complex neuromuscular diseases caused by an unstable CTG repeat expansion in the DMPK gene. DM1 patients exhibit high variability in the dynamics of CTG repeat instability and in the manifestations and progression of the disease. The largest expanded alleles are generally associated with the earliest and most severe clinical form. However, CTG repeat length alone is not sufficient to predict disease severity and progression, suggesting the involvement of other factors. Several data support the role of epigenetic alterations in clinical and genetic variability. By highlighting epigenetic alterations in DM1, this review provides a new avenue on how these changes can serve as biomarkers to predict clinical features and the mutation behavior.

Keywords: CTG repeat expansion; DM1 phenotype; DM1 prediction and therapeutic targets; DNA methylation and chromatin; myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Biomarkers
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Humans
  • Myotonic Dystrophy* / genetics
  • Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion


  • Biomarkers